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Use of photography and video in observational research

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Use of photography and video in observational research | Emerald Insight

PDF Download. Memoranda on poisons PDF Download. PDF Angor ePub. Software Design Document ePub. PDF Daddy Download. Busch Download. So, what follows is two examples of HPER using pre-existing drawings as research data—comics and mind maps [ 7 , 8 ], followed by two examples of HPER employing participant-produced drawings—Pictor technique and rich pictures [ 9 , 10 ], and finally two examples of HPER employing researcher-produced drawings—visual notation and infographic visual representation of qualitative data [ 11 , 12 ].

They found that while relationships between academic and medical professionalism were indicated in mind maps through visual connections and co-occurring text, students often struggled to visualize these relationships in their mind maps Fig. Given that both studies employ pre-existing images as data, however, neither engaged participants in discussions about their drawings: indeed, interpretations of the comics and mind maps were based on researcher analyses only. As discussed above, images are polysemic with multiple interpretations [ 4 , 16 , 19 ], and therefore many scholars suggest that researchers should collaborate with participants in the interpretation of images [ 15 , 39 ].

Pre-existing student comic from Green [ 7 , P. They found that various people e.

The Pictor charts highlighted positive and negative influences, power differences and barriers in terms of relationships Fig. While Pictor charts have been criticized for being over-simplistic and restrictive because participants might prefer to use shapes other than arrows and represent the nature of relationships differently [ 32 ], rich pictures might suffer from being overly-complicated and therefore difficult and laborious to analyse [ 10 ].

Data were first analyzed within context and then analyzed across contexts making visible educational practices [ 11 ]. Kell found that patients were typically absent in everyday placement activities: staff either practised skills on each other or discussed patients without patients present or patients were often objectified as teaching materials when they were present [ 11 ].

Fundamentals of Qualitative Research Methods: Data Analysis (Module 5)

While all ethnographic researchers, irrespective of their recording methods, make real-time choices about what to record, video allows for more thoughtful considerations about the focus of analysis i. Researcher-generated visual notation of an experienced therapist helping a student identify physiotherapy work in the care of a semi-conscious patient from Kell [ 42 , P.

To conclude, visual methods are increasingly used in HPER including the use of pre-existing, participant-produced and researcher-generated drawings.


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Her interests include health professions education research; workplace learning; and innovations in qualitative research. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Journal List Perspect Med Educ v. Perspect Med Educ. Published online Jun 7.

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Charlotte Rees. Author information Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Charlotte Rees, Email: ude. Corresponding author. Philosophical issues underpinning the visual An ongoing philosophical question around the visual is the extent to which images represent or construct reality [ 14 ].

The benefits of visual methods While we live in cultures of ocularcentrism [ 2 , 16 ], visual research methods are often underutilized in the social sciences [ 4 , 5 , 19 ].

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The challenges of visual methods Visual methods are not without their challenges however. Drawings as an example of the visual Despite these challenges, researchers are increasingly turning to visual methods in HPER, and in particular to researcher-generated video methods [ 6 , 23 , 24 ]. Table 1 Glossary of terms for types of drawings. Open in a separate window. Summary and conclusions To conclude, visual methods are increasingly used in HPER including the use of pre-existing, participant-produced and researcher-generated drawings.

References 1. Kahlke R, Eva K. Constructing critical thinking in health professional education. Prosser J, Loxley A. Location: ESRC national centre for research methods. Banks M, Zeitlyn D. Visual methods in social research. London: SAGE; Reavey P. The return to experience. Psychology and the visual. In: Reavey P, editor. Visual methods in psychology: using and interpreting images in qualitative research. East Sussex: Psychology Press; Metcalfe AS. Visual methods in higher education. Research in the college context: approaches and methods.

New York: Routledge; Bezemer J. Visual research in clinical education. Med Educ. Green MJ. Comics and medicine: peering into the process of professional identity formation. Acad Med.


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Janczukowicz J, Rees CE. BMJ Open. How clinical medical students perceive others to influence their self-regulated learning. Exploring the unspoken dimensions of complex and challenging surgical situations. Kell C.

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Int J Ther Rehabil. Multiple and multi-dimensional transitions from trainee to trained doctor: a qualitative longitudinal study. Banks M. Clark A, Morriss L.